england sleep disorders
the edinburgh sleep centre
restful sleep
excellence in the diagnosis & treatment of sleep disorders

sleep disorders edinburgh uk

Our Publications
1970 - 1979
1980 - 1989
1990 - 1999
2000 - Present
Books and Chapters

Scientific Journal Publications

1970 – 1979

  • Bruce DJ, Evans CR, Fenwick PB, Spencer V. Effect of presenting novel verbal material during slow-wave sleep. Nature. 1970 Feb 28;225(5235):873-4
  • Fenwick PB, Michie P, Dollimore J, Fenton GW. Mathematical simulation of the electroencephalogram using an autoregressive series. Int J Biomed Comput. 1971 Oct;2(4):281-307
  • Crisp AH, Stonehill E, Fenton GW, Fenwick PB. Sleep patterns in obese patients during weight reduction. Psychother Psychosom. 1973;22(2):159-65
  • Fenwick PB, Donaldson S, Gillis L, Bushman J, Fenton GW, Perry I, Tilsley C, Serafinowicz H. Metabolic and EEG changes during transcendental meditation: an explanation. Biol Psychol. 1977 Jun;5(2):101-18.
  • Fenwick PB, Turner C. Relationship between amplitude of pattern displacement and visual evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1977 Jul;43(1):74-8.

1980 - 1989

  • P. B. C. Fenwick, D. Brown and J. Hennesey. The visual evoked response to pattern reversal in ‘normal’ 6–11-year-old children. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 51, 1981.
  • P. Fenwick. Event related potentials in anesthesiology  Biological Psychology, Volume 15, Issues 3-4, 1982
  • P. B. C. Fenwick and Robyn Robertson. Changes in the visual evoked potential to pattern reversal with lithium medication. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 55, Issue 5, May 1983,
  • P B.C. Fenwick, S. A. Stone, J. Bushman and D. Enderby. Changes in the pattern reversal visual evoked potential as a function of inspired nitrous oxide concentration  Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 57, Issue 2, February 1984
  • P. Fenwick, G. Fenton, Epilepsy and Insanity. The Lancet, Volume 324, Issue 8401, 1 September 1984
  • Williams AJ, Houston S, Finberg S, Lam C, Kinney J, Santiago S: Sleep Apnoea Syndrome and Essential Hypertension. Am J Cardiol 55: 1019-22, 1985
  • Popper R, Leidinger J, Williams AJ: Bronchoscopic observations of the velopharyngeal sphincter during treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea with nasal CPAP West J Med 144:83-85, 1986.
  • Fenwick PB, Mercer S, Grant R, Wheeler M, Nanjee N, Toone B, Brown D. Nocturnal penile tumescence and serum testosterone levels. Arch Sex Behav. 1986 Feb;15(1):13-21
  • Fenwick P: Somnambulism and the law: a review. Behav Sci Law 1987
  • Yu G, Williams AJ: Screening for sleep apnoea using pulse Oximetry and a clinical score. Chest 94: 295, 1988.
  • Williams AJ, Mohsenifar Z: Oxygen supply dependency in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and its reversal after therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Am Rev Resp Dis 140: 1308-1311, 1989.
  • Fenwick P. Automatism and the law. Lancet 1989, 2;:753-4;

1990 - 1999

  • Williams AJ: Sleep apnoea and myocardial infarction. Lancet 336: 888, 1990
  • Williams AJ, Yu G, Santiago S, Stein M: Screening for sleep apnoea using Oximetry and a clinical score. Chest 100: 631-35, 1991.
  • Williams AJ, Arand D, Yan-Go F, Clark G, Miller T: Adjuvant therapies for obstructive sleep apnoea. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: A590, 1991.
  • Mahmoud M, Koyal SN, Stein M, Williams AJ: Wrist actigraph assessment of sleep in patients with COPD compared with those with sleep apnoea. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: A389, 1991.
  • G. Anogianakis, J. M. Badier, G. Barrett, S. Erné, R. Fenici, P. Fenwick, et al. A consensus statement on relative merits of EEG and MEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 82, Issue 5, May 1992,
  • Williams AJ: Value of Nocturnal Polysomnography in the Evaluation of Sleep Apnoea. Lancet May 2, 1992.
  • Williams AJ: Screening for Sleep Apnoea. CTS Epitome, Western J Med, 1992.
  • Williams AJ, Santiago S: The nose and obstructive sleep apnoea. Editorial, Chest 1993.
  • Feber R, Coppola M, Fleetham J, Iber C, Kuna S, McCall V, Millman R, Nino-Murcia G, Pressman M, Sanders M, Strohl K, Votteri B, Williams AJ: Portable recording in the assessment of obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep 1993.
  • Williams AJ. Sleep Apnoea and related conditions. Summary of a report of a working party of the Royal College of Physicians. J Royal Coll Phys 27: 363-4, 1993.
  • John Lumsden, Chris Sulliman, Jim Dally, Adrian West, P.B.C. Fenwick and G.W. Fenton. Petechial haemorrhage following a partial seizure with secondary generalization: atypical presentation and differential diagnosis. Seizure, Volume 3, Issue 1, March 1994
  • A. A. Ioannides, P. B. C. Fenwick, J. Lumsden, et al. Activation sequence of discrete brain areas during cognitive processes: results from magnetic field tomography. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 91, Issue 5, November 1994,
  • Williams AJ, Cooper C, Guze P: New Approaches in Medical Education. Academic Medicine 69: 417, 1994
  • Yu G, Santiago S, Goldman, Williams AJ: Evaluation of Sleep Disorders by Unattended in-home Nocturnal Polysomnography. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 151: A252, 1995.
  • Williams AJ, De Lilly J, Mahler M, Mandelkern M, Mohsenifar Z: Impaired control of cerebral glucose utilisation in obstructive sleep apnoea. Respiration (1995).
  • Fenwick, P. (1996) Sleep and sexual offending.  Medicine, Science and the Law, 36, 122-134.
  • Chalmers RM, Howard RS, Wiles CM, Hirsh NP, Miller DH, Williams AJ: Respiratory Insufficiency in Neuronopathic and Neuropathic Disorders. Q J Med Vol 89: 469-476, 1996.
  • Masumi S, Nishigawa K, Williams AJ, Yan-Go FL, Clark GT: Effect of jaw position and posture on forced inspiratory airflow in normal and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Chest, Vol. 109: 1484-89, 1996.
  • Kidd D, Williams AJ, Howard RS; Poliomyelitis. Classic diseases revisited. Postgrad Med J 72: 1996.
  • Goldman MD, Williams AJ, Soo Hoo G, Trang TTH, Gautier C; Asynchronous thoracoabdominal movements in chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) : acute expiration during spontaneous breathing in sleep and wakefulness. Adv Exp Med Biol 393: 95-100, 1996. 
  • Williams AJ, Kidd D, Howard RS; Periodic limb movement disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg 62: 211p; 1997.
  • P. Fenwick, A. Ioniades, J. Lumsden, et al. PET and MEG imaging of the CNV. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 68, Issues 2-3, 1997
  • Meissner HH, Riemer A, Santiago SM, Stein MD, Goldman MD, Williams AJ; Failure of Physician Documentation of Sleep Complaints in Hospitalized Patients. West J Med 169:146-149, 1998.
  • Higgins SE, Hamid S, El-Kabir D, Davidson AC, Howard RS, Williams AJ. Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography (RIP) - The Effect of a Body Ventilator on the Contribution of the Rib Cage to Thoraco-Abdominal Movement. Thorax 53; A80, 1998.
  • Williams AJ. Muscle Strength Assessed Non-Invasively in Relation to Current or Previous Need for Ventilatory Support in Post-Polio Patients. Thorax 53; A80, 1998.
  • Nooman Y, Hamid S, Woolford M, Sutton A, Rees PJ, Treacher DF, Williams AJ. Experience with Mandibular Repositioning in the Treatment of Snoring and Sleep Apnoea with and without CPAP. Thorax 53; A4, 1998.
  • Howard RS, El Kabir D, Seers CJ, Higgins SE, Williams AJ. Assessment of Neurogenic Respiratory Failure Using Continuous Arterial Blood Gas Monitoring.Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1998; 64: 706.
  • J. M. Oxbury, J. E. Adcock, G. D. S. Wright, P. B. C. Fenwick, R. Kennett and Z. Zaiwalla. Indications for videotelemetry prior to mesial temporal lobe sclerosis epilepsy surgery. Seizure, Volume 7, Issue 1, February 1998,
  • Y. Nagai, J. Lumsdem, L. Goldstein and P. Fenwick. 708 22HZ, 28HZ specific cortical activation during galvanic skin response (GSR) biofeedback. International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 30, Issues 1-2, 1998
  • H. R. Pouretemad, P. J. Thompson and P. B. C. Fenwick. Impaired sensorimotor gating in patients with non-epileptic seizures. Seizure, Volume 7, Issue 1, February 1998
  • Williams AJ, El-Kabir DR, Higgins SE, Howard RS. Sleep Related Disorders in Non-Ventilated Patients with Antecedent Polio. J Neurol Neurosurg 66; 265, 1999. 
  • Wong IC, Chadwick DW, Fenwick PB, Mawer GE, Sander JW.  The long-term use of gabapentin, lamotrigine, and vigabatrin in patients with chronic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1999 Oct;40(10):1439-45.
    Forsling M, Wheeler M, Williams AJ: The Effect of Melatonin Administration on Pituitary Hormone Secretion in Man. J Clin Endocrin. Vol 51: 637-642, 1999.

2000 - Present

  • Clarke NA, Williams AJ, Kopelman MD: REM Behaviour Disorder in Dementia. Br J Psych. Vol 176: 189-192, 2000.
  • Lawrence E, Dundas R, Higgens SE, Howard R, Rudd AG, Wolfe C, Williams AJ. The natural history and associations of sleep-disordered breathing in first ever stroke. Internat J Clin Practice 55: 584-588, 2001
  • Ebrahim IO, The three faces of Memory Disorder; Health and Aging, 2000, 14:24 -27;
  • Oka Y, Howard RS, Williams AJ. Review of REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder in a Sleep Disorder Centre in the United Kingdom. J Neurol. Sci 2001; 187: P1563.
  • Williams AJ, Higgins SE, Howard RS. Assessment of Sleepiness in a Clinic Population - the Value {or not} of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test {MSLT} J Neurol. Sci 2001; 187: P1568.
  • Nooman YM, Seers C, Higgins SE, Seed P, Howard RS, Williams AJ. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability During Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep. J Neurol. Sci 2001; 187: P1570.
  • Sam Parnia, D. G. Waller, R. Yeates and P. Fenwick. A qualitative and quantitative study of the incidence, features and aetiology of near death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors. Resuscitation, Volume 48, Issue 2, February 2001
  • Ebrahim IO, Howard R S, Kopelman M D, Sharief M K, and Williams A J. The hypocretin/orexin system. J R Soc Med 2002 95: 227-230;
  • Ebrahim IO, de Lacy S, Semra Y K, Howard R S, Sharief M K, and Williams AJ. CSF Hypocretin levels in Neurologic and Psychiatric conditions, SLEEP 2002;
  • Ebrahim IO, de Lacy S, Semra Y K, Howard R S, Sharief M K, and Williams A J. Narcolepsy with cataplexy, Monosymptomatic Narcolepsy and Primary Hypersomnia: A prospective study in 24 patients including CSF hypocretin levels, SLEEP 2002; 25:
  • Ebrahim IO, Memory Disorders in Psychiatric Practice, BJPsych 2002; 181: 177-178;
  • Ebrahim IO, Sharief MK, de Lacy S, Semra YK, Howard RS, Kopelman MD,
  • Williams AJ. Hypocretin (Orexin) Deficiency in Narcolepsy and Primary Hypersomnia. JNNP 2003; 74(1): 127-130;
  • Ebrahim IO, Williams AJ, et al. CSF Hypocretin (Orexin) in Neurological and Psychiatric disorders. JSR 2003; 12(1). 
  • Nooman YM, Seers C, Higgins SE, Howard RS, Williams AJ. The Use of Heart Rate Variability to differentiate between obstructive and non-obstructive sleep apnoea. Am J Resp Crit Care Med.
  • L. C. Liu, P. B. C. Fenwick, et al. The human primary somatosensory cortex response contains components related to stimulus frequency and perception in a frequency discrimination task.  Neuroscience, Volume 121, Issue 1, 26 September 2003
  • Ebrahim IO, Fisher JP, de Lacy S, Williams AJ. A prospective, randomized, trial comparing the effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Pharmacologic Treatment and Combination therapy in patients with Primary Insomnia. SLEEP (2003)
  • Williams AJ, Oka Y, Howard RS, Soliman MGG, de Lacy S, Ebrahim IO REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder - Characteristics of a series of consecutive referrals to a Specialist Sleep disorders Centre in the UK, SLEEP (2003)
  • Ebrahim IO, de Lacy S, Howard RS, Sharief MK, Williams AJ. CSF Hypocretin (Orexin) in Disorders of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness. SLEEP (2003). 
  • Nightingale S, Orgill JC, Ebrahim IO, Williams AJ. The Association between Narcolepsy and REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD). SLEEP (2004)
  • Thannickal TC, Mayhew J Blouin A, Nienhuis R, Williams AJ, Ebrahim IO, Siegel JM. Distribution of Hypocretin (Orexin) Immunoreactivity In The Hypothalamus Of Normal And Narcoleptic Horse. SLEEP (2004)
  • Orgill JC, Bath J, Ebrahim IO, de Lacy SF, Williams AJ. The role of Actigraphy in the study of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms. SLEEP (2004).
  • Y. Nagai, H. D. Critchley, E. Featherstone, P. B. C. Fenwick, M. R. Trimble and R. J. Dolan. Brain activity relating to the contingent negative variation: an fMRI investigation  NeuroImage, Volume 21, Issue 4, April 2004,
  • Nagai Y, Goldstein LH, Critchley HD, Fenwick PB. Influence of sympathetic autonomic arousal on cortical arousal: implications for a therapeutic behavioural intervention in epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2004 Feb;58(2-3):185-93.
  • Ebrahim IO. The Management of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness. Drugs & Therapeutics Bulletin. 2004 June;
  • N. Hironaga, K. Haruhana, L. C. Liu, P. B. C. Fenwick and A. A. Ioannides. Monitoring of eye movement and its use for artifact elimination. International Congress Series, Volume 1270, August 2004
  • Nagai Y, Goldstein LH, Fenwick PB, Trimble MR. Clinical efficacy of galvanic skin response biofeedback training in reducing seizures in adult epilepsy: a preliminary randomized controlled study.Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Apr;5(2):216-23.
  • Nightingale S, Williams AJ, Orgill JC, Ebrahim IO, de Lacy S. The association between narcolepsy and REM behaviour disorder (RBD) Sleep Medicine (2005)
  • Ebrahim IO, Peacock KW. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder - Psychiatric Presentations: A Case Series from the United Kingdom Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005
  • Ebrahim IO, Peacock KW, Williams AJ. Post-traumatic Narcolepsy: 2 case reports and a mini-review. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2005
  • Ebrahim IO, Williams AJ, Peacock KW, Maldonado CC. Driver Sleepiness in South African Commercial Drivers: A two stage screening study. SLEEP 28: 165 (2005)
  • Ebrahim IO, de Lacy S, et al. CSF Hypocretin (Orexin) in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness. SLEEP 28: 216 (2005)
  • Wilson W, Ebrahim IO, Fenwick P, Marks RL. Violence, Sleepwalking and the Criminal Law. Criminal Law Review (August 2005)
  • Ebrahim IO, Wilson W, Fenwick PB, Peacock KW, Marks RL. Sleep related violence, Alcohol, Automatism and the Law. Criminal Law Review (2005)
  • Ioannides AA, Fenwick PB. Imaging cerebellum activity in real time with magnetoencephalographic data. Prog Brain Res. 2005;148:139-50. Review.
  • Ioannides AA, Fenwick PB, Liu L. Widely distributed magnetoencephalography spikes related to the planning and execution of human saccades. J Neurosci. 2005 Aug 31;25(35):7950-67.
  • Ebrahim IO. Somnambulistic Sexual Behaviour (Sexsomnia). Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine 13 (2006) 219–224
  • A. Ioannides, M. Corsi-Cabrera, P. Fenwick,, et al. Magnetic field tomography of both cortical and pontine activity during eye movements  Clinical Neurophysiology, February 2007
  • Hajak G, Ebrahim IO, Vincent S & Hibberd M. Ramelteon, unlike Zopiclone, has no Effect on Body Sway at Peak Plasma Levels in Insomnia Patients. SLEEP (2007)
  • Engleman, H.M., Hill, E.A., Ebrahim, I.O., Idzikowski, C. Improvement in polysomnographic sleep quality with a mattress cooling device. Journal of Sleep Research 2008; 17 (suppl.1): 235.
  • Engleman, H.M., Rosman, K., Bruning, A., Ameen, O., Chakkal, P., Williams, A.J., Hill, E.A., Ebrahim, I.O. Patient audit of the Sigma sleep centres, South Africa; sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) and relationships with subjective symptom ratings. Journal of Sleep Research 2008; 17 (suppl.1): 161.
  • Ebrahim IO & Fenwick PB. Sleep-related automatism and the law. MedSciLaw 2008; 48(2):124-36.
  • Ebrahim IO. Ramelteon: A novel treatment for Insomnia. Future Neurology (January 2008)
  • Bonakis A, Howard RS, Ebrahim IO, Merritt S, Williams AJ. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and its associations in young patients. Sleep Medicine, Volume 10, Issue 6, June 2009, Pages 641-645
  • Hoeve P, Dorffner G, Ebrahim IO, Hajak G and Dingemanse J. Orexin Receptor Antagonism, a New Sleep-Enabling Paradigm: A Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trial. (2012). Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (in press)
  • Ebrahim IO & Fenwick PB Letter to the Editor. Sleep Related Violence, Alcohol and Sleepwalking. Brain (2012)
  • Drakatos P, Suri A, Higgins SE, Ebrahim IO, Muza RT, Kosky CA, Williams AJ, Leschziner GD. Research Paper: Sleep stage sequence analysis of sleep onset REM periods in the hypersomnias. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012;0:1–5. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-303578
  • Ebrahim IO, Shapiro CM, Williams AJ, Fenwick PB. Review: Alcohol and Sleep I: Effects on Normal Sleep, Alcohol Clin Exp Res, Vol 37, No 4, 2013: pp 539–549
  • Ebrahim IO. REVIEW: NREM Parasomnias Recent Advances and Forensic Aspects.Forensic. Curr Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 2013, 19:609–615. DOI:10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283659e5f

Books and Chapters

  • Event-Related Brain Potentials in Personality and Psychopathology (Psychophysiology Research Studies) by R. C. Howard, G. W. Fenton, P. Fenwick. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 1982
  • EEG and MEG in Neuropsychiatry (Neuropsychiatry Series) by A. Reeve, P. Fenwick (Editor).Blackwell Science Inc, 1995
  • Insomnia: Dr I Can't Sleep. 1996. Amberwood Publishing. Williams AJ
  • Living with Epilepsy. 1996 Bloomsbury. P Fenwick and E Fenwick
  • Detection of Sleep Apnea in Cardiac Care Units. IN: Practical Critical Care in Cardiology. Z Mohsenifar, PK Shah and L Rubin (Eds), 1996. Marcel Dekker. Williams AJ
  • The Hidden Door: Understanding and controlling Dreams. PB Fenwick and E Fenwick. (Berkley, 1999)
  • Sleep and its Disorders - Principles and Practice of Geriatric Medicine. MSJ Pathy (Ed), 1998. John Wiley, Chichester. Williams AJ
  • Automatism.  In Bluglass (ed). Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry  271-285 (2000) Fenwick P
  • The Iron Lung: The Oxford Companion to the Body.(Ed) C Blakemore. Oxford University Press, 2000. Williams AJ
  • Fighting Fatigue & Sleepiness: Practical Strategies for minimising sleepiness & fatigue. Joli Joco Publications (2005) Shapiro CM, Ohayon MM, Ebrahim IO, Grunstein R.
  • Organic Psychiatric Disorders, Seminars in General Adult Psychiatry, Royal College of Psychiatrists, Gaskell (2007). Jacobson R, Ebrahim IO, Kopelman MD.
  • Sleep Disorders, Seminars in General adult Psychiatry, Royal College of Psychiatrists, Gaskell (2007) Stores G & Ebrahim IO.
  • Ebrahim IO and Fenwick PB. Forensic Issues of Sleep in Psychiatric Patients (Chapter 32) in Sleep and Mental Illness. Eds. Pandi-Perumal SR & Kramer M. (Cambridge University Press, 2010)
  • Ebrahim IO & Shapiro CM. Medico-legal consequences of Parasomnias (Chapter 10) in Parasomnias and other Movement Disorders. Eds. Thorpy M & Plazzi G. (Cambridge University Press, 2010) pp 81-98
  • Ebrahim IO and Idzikowski C. Forensic Aspects of Sleep Disorders (Chapter 22) in The Encylopedia of Sleep Science, Elservier, 2013

diagnosis & treatment of sleep disorders
sleep disorders